PIM – Protocol Independent Multicast
pimd supports pim-sm as well as igmp v2 and v3. pim is vrf aware and can work within the context of vrf’s in order to do S,G mrouting. Additionally PIM can be used in the EVPN underlay network for optimizing forwarding of overlay BUM traffic.
On Linux for PIM-SM operation you must have kernel version 4.18 or greater. To use PIM for EVPN BUM forwarding, kernels 5.0 or greater are required. OpenBSD has no multicast support and FreeBSD, and NetBSD only have support for SSM.
Starting and Stopping pimd¶
The default configuration file name of pimd’s is
invoked pimd searches directory /etc/frr. If
pimd.conf is not there then next search current directory.
pimd requires zebra for proper operation. Additionally pimd depends on routing properly setup and working in the network that it is working on.
# zebra -d # pimd -d
Please note that zebra must be invoked before pimd.
To stop pimd please use:
kill `cat /var/run/pimd.pid`
Certain signals have special meanings to pimd.
Rotate the pimd logfile
pimd sweeps all installed PIM mroutes then terminates gracefully.
pimd invocation options. Common options that can be specified (Common Invocation Options).
- ip pim rp A.B.C.D A.B.C.D/M¶
In order to use pim, it is necessary to configure a RP for join messages to be sent to. Currently the only methodology to do this is via static rp commands. All routers in the pim network must agree on these values. The first ip address is the RP’s address and the second value is the matching prefix of group ranges covered. This command is vrf aware, to configure for a vrf, enter the vrf submode.
- ip pim register-accept-list PLIST¶
When pim receives a register packet the source of the packet will be compared to the prefix-list specified, PLIST, and if a permit is received normal processing continues. If a deny is returned for the source address of the register packet a register stop message is sent to the source.
- ip pim spt-switchover infinity-and-beyond¶
On the last hop router if it is desired to not switch over to the SPT tree. Configure this command. This command is vrf aware, to configure for a vrf, enter the vrf submode.
- ip pim ecmp¶
If pim has the a choice of ECMP nexthops for a particular RPF, pim will cause S,G flows to be spread out amongst the nexthops. If this command is not specified then the first nexthop found will be used. This command is vrf aware, to configure for a vrf, enter the vrf submode.
- ip pim ecmp rebalance¶
If pim is using ECMP and an interface goes down, cause pim to rebalance all S,G flows across the remaining nexthops. If this command is not configured pim only modifies those S,G flows that were using the interface that went down. This command is vrf aware, to configure for a vrf, enter the vrf submode.
- ip pim join-prune-interval (1-65535)¶
Modify the join/prune interval that pim uses to the new value. Time is specified in seconds. This command is vrf aware, to configure for a vrf, enter the vrf submode. The default time is 60 seconds. If you enter a value smaller than 60 seconds be aware that this can and will affect convergence at scale.
- ip pim keep-alive-timer (1-65535)¶
Modify the time out value for a S,G flow from 1-60000 seconds. If choosing a value below 31 seconds be aware that some hardware platforms cannot see data flowing in better than 30 second chunks. This command is vrf aware, to configure for a vrf, enter the vrf submode.
- ip pim packets (1-255)¶
When processing packets from a neighbor process the number of packets incoming at one time before moving on to the next task. The default value is 3 packets. This command is only useful at scale when you can possibly have a large number of pim control packets flowing. This command is vrf aware, to configure for a vrf, enter the vrf submode.
- ip pim register-suppress-time (1-65535)¶
Modify the time that pim will register suppress a FHR will send register notifications to the kernel. This command is vrf aware, to configure for a vrf, enter the vrf submode.
- ip pim send-v6-secondary¶
When sending pim hello packets tell pim to send any v6 secondary addresses on the interface. This information is used to allow pim to use v6 nexthops in it’s decision for RPF lookup. This command is vrf aware, to configure for a vrf, enter the vrf submode.
- ip pim ssm prefix-list WORD¶
Specify a range of group addresses via a prefix-list that forces pim to never do SM over. This command is vrf aware, to configure for a vrf, enter the vrf submode.
- ip multicast rpf-lookup-mode WORD¶
Modify how PIM does RPF lookups in the zebra routing table. You can use these choices:
Lookup the RPF in both tables using the longer prefix as a match
Lookup the RPF in both tables using the lower distance as a match
Lookup in the Multicast RIB only
Lookup in the Multicast RIB then the Unicast Rib, returning first found. This is the default value for lookup if this command is not entered
Lookup in the Unicast Rib only.
- ip igmp generate-query-once [version (2-3)]¶
Generate IGMP query (v2/v3) on user requirement. This will not depend on the existing IGMP general query timer.If no version is provided in the cli, it will be considered as default v2 query.This is a hidden command.
- ip igmp watermark-warn (1-65535)¶
Configure watermark warning generation for an igmp group limit. Generates warning once the configured group limit is reached while adding new groups. ‘no’ form of the command disables the warning generation. This command is vrf aware. To configure per vrf, enter vrf submode.
PIM Interface Configuration¶
PIM interface commands allow you to configure an interface as either a Receiver or a interface that you would like to form pim neighbors on. If the interface is in a vrf, enter the interface command with the vrf keyword at the end.
- ip pim active-active¶
Turn on pim active-active configuration for a Vxlan interface. This command will not do anything if you do not have the underlying ability of a mlag implementation.
- ip pim bsm¶
Tell pim that we would like to use this interface to process bootstrap messages. This is enabled by default. ‘no’ form of this command is used to restrict bsm messages on this interface.
- ip pim unicast-bsm¶
Tell pim that we would like to allow interface to process unicast bootstrap messages. This is enabled by default. ‘no’ form of this command is used to restrict processing of unicast bsm messages on this interface.
- ip pim drpriority (1-4294967295)¶
Set the DR Priority for the interface. This command is useful to allow the user to influence what node becomes the DR for a lan segment.
- ip pim hello (1-65535) (1-65535)¶
Set the pim hello and hold interval for a interface.
- ip pim¶
Tell pim that we would like to use this interface to form pim neighbors over. Please note that this command does not enable the reception of IGMP reports on the interface. Refer to the next ip igmp command for IGMP management.
- ip pim use-source A.B.C.D¶
If you have multiple addresses configured on a particular interface and would like pim to use a specific source address associated with that interface.
- ip igmp¶
Tell pim to receive IGMP reports and Query on this interface. The default version is v3. This command is useful on a LHR.
- ip igmp join A.B.C.D [A.B.C.D]¶
Join multicast group or source-group on an interface.
- ip igmp query-interval (1-65535)¶
Set the IGMP query interval that PIM will use.
- ip igmp query-max-response-time (1-65535)¶
Set the IGMP query response timeout value. If an report is not returned in the specified time we will assume the S,G or *,G has timed out.
- ip igmp version (2-3)¶
Set the IGMP version used on this interface. The default value is 3.
- ip multicast boundary oil WORD¶
Set a pim multicast boundary, based upon the WORD prefix-list. If a pim join or IGMP report is received on this interface and the Group is denied by the prefix-list, PIM will ignore the join or report.
- ip igmp last-member-query-count (1-255)¶
Set the IGMP last member query count. The default value is 2. ‘no’ form of this command is used to to configure back to the default value.
- ip igmp last-member-query-interval (1-65535)¶
Set the IGMP last member query interval in deciseconds. The default value is 10 deciseconds. ‘no’ form of this command is used to to configure back to the default value.
- ip mroute INTERFACE A.B.C.D [A.B.C.D]¶
Set a static multicast route for a traffic coming on the current interface to be forwarded on the given interface if the traffic matches the group address and optionally the source address.
PIM Multicast RIB¶
In order to influence Multicast RPF lookup, it is possible to insert into zebra routes for the Multicast RIB. These routes are only used for RPF lookup and will not be used by zebra for insertion into the kernel or for normal rib processing. As such it is possible to create weird states with these commands. Use with caution. Most of the time this will not be necessary.
- ip mroute A.B.C.D/M A.B.C.D (1-255)¶
Insert into the Multicast Rib Route A.B.C.D/M with specified nexthop. The distance can be specified as well if desired.
- ip mroute A.B.C.D/M INTERFACE (1-255)¶
Insert into the Multicast Rib Route A.B.C.D/M using the specified INTERFACE. The distance can be specified as well if desired.
Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP) Configuration¶
MSDP can be setup in different ways:
MSDP meshed-group: where all peers are connected with each other creating a fully meshed network. SAs (source active) messages are not forwarded in this mode because the origin is able to send SAs to all members.
This setup is commonly used with anycast.
MSDP peering: when there is one or more peers that are not fully meshed. SAs may be forwarded depending on the result of filtering and RPF checks.
This setup is commonly consistent with BGP peerings (for RPF checks).
MSDP default peer: there is only one peer and all SAs will be forwarded there.
MSDP default peer and SA filtering is not implemented.
Commands available for MSDP:
- ip msdp timers (1-65535) (1-65535) [(1-65535)]¶
Configure global MSDP timers.
First value is the keep-alive interval. This configures the interval in seconds between keep-alive messages. The default value is 60 seconds. It should be less than the remote hold time.
Second value is the hold-time. This configures the interval in seconds before closing a non responding connection. The default value is 75. This value should be greater than the remote keep alive time.
Third value is the connection retry interval and it is optional. This configures the interval between connection attempts. The default value is 30 seconds.
- ip msdp mesh-group WORD member A.B.C.D¶
Create or update a mesh group to include the specified MSDP peer.
- ip msdp mesh-group WORD source A.B.C.D¶
Create or update a mesh group to set the source address used to connect to peers.
- ip msdp peer A.B.C.D source A.B.C.D¶
Create a regular MSDP session with peer using the specified source address.
Show PIM Information¶
All PIM show commands are vrf aware and typically allow you to insert a specified vrf command if information is desired about a specific vrf. If no vrf is specified then the default vrf is assumed. Finally the special keyword ‘all’ allows you to look at all vrfs for the command. Naming a vrf ‘all’ will cause great confusion.
- show ip igmp interface¶
Display IGMP interface information.
- show ip igmp [vrf NAME] join [json]¶
Display IGMP static join information for a specific vrf. If “vrf all” is provided, it displays information for all the vrfs present.
- show ip igmp groups¶
Display IGMP groups information.
- show ip igmp groups retransmissions¶
Display IGMP group retransmission information.
- show ip igmp sources¶
Display IGMP sources information.
- show ip igmp sources retransmissions¶
Display IGMP source retransmission information.
- show ip igmp statistics¶
Display IGMP statistics information.
- show ip multicast¶
Display various information about the interfaces used in this pim instance.
- show ip mroute [vrf NAME] [A.B.C.D [A.B.C.D]] [fill] [json]¶
Display information about installed into the kernel S,G mroutes. If one address is specified we assume it is the Group we are interested in displaying data on. If the second address is specified then it is Source Group. The keyword fill says to fill in all assumed data for test/data gathering purposes.
- show ip mroute [vrf NAME] count [json]¶
Display information about installed into the kernel S,G mroutes and in addition display data about packet flow for the mroutes for a specific vrf.
- show ip mroute vrf all count [json]¶
Display information about installed into the kernel S,G mroutes and in addition display data about packet flow for the mroutes for all vrfs.
- show ip mroute [vrf NAME] summary [json]¶
Display total number of S,G mroutes and number of S,G mroutes installed into the kernel for a specific vrf.
- show ip mroute vrf all summary [json]¶
Display total number of S,G mroutes and number of S,G mroutes installed into the kernel for all vrfs.
- show ip msdp mesh-group¶
Display the configured mesh-groups, the local address associated with each mesh-group, the peer members included in each mesh-group, and their status.
- show ip msdp peer¶
Display information about the MSDP peers. That includes the peer address, the local address used to establish the connection to the peer, the connection status, and the number of active sources.
- show ip pim assert¶
Display information about asserts in the PIM system for S,G mroutes. This command does not show S,G Channel states that in a NOINFO state.
- show ip pim assert-internal¶
Display internal assert state for S,G mroutes
- show ip pim assert-metric¶
Display metric information about assert state for S,G mroutes
- show ip pim assert-winner-metric¶
Display winner metric for assert state for S,G mroutes
- show ip pim group-type¶
Display SSM group ranges.
- show ip pim interface¶
Display information about interfaces PIM is using.
- show ip pim mlag [vrf NAME|all] interface [detail|WORD] [json]¶
Display mlag interface information.
- show ip pim join¶
Display information about PIM joins received. If one address is specified then we assume it is the Group we are interested in displaying data on. If the second address is specified then it is Source Group.
- show ip pim local-membership¶
Display information about PIM interface local-membership.
- show ip pim mlag summary [json]¶
Display mlag information state that PIM is keeping track of.
- show ip pim neighbor¶
Display information about PIM neighbors.
- show ip pim nexthop¶
Display information about pim nexthops that are being used.
- show ip pim nexthop-lookup¶
Display information about a S,G pair and how the RPF would be chosen. This is especially useful if there are ECMP’s available from the RPF lookup.
- show ip pim rp-info¶
Display information about RP’s that are configured on this router.
- show ip pim rpf¶
Display information about currently being used S,G’s and their RPF lookup information. Additionally display some statistics about what has been happening on the router.
- show ip pim secondary¶
Display information about an interface and all the secondary addresses associated with it.
- show ip pim state¶
Display information about known S,G’s and incoming interface as well as the OIL and how they were chosen.
- show ip pim [vrf NAME] upstream [A.B.C.D [A.B.C.D]] [json]¶
Display upstream information about a S,G mroute. Allow the user to specify sub Source and Groups that we are only interested in.
- show ip pim upstream-join-desired¶
Display upstream information for S,G’s and if we desire to join the multicast tree
- show ip pim upstream-rpf¶
Display upstream information for S,G’s and the RPF data associated with them.
- show ip pim [vrf NAME] mlag upstream [A.B.C.D [A.B.C.D]] [json]¶
Display upstream entries that are synced across MLAG switches. Allow the user to specify sub Source and Groups address filters.
- show ip pim mlag summary¶
Display PIM MLAG (multi-chassis link aggregation) session status and control message statistics.
- show ip pim bsr¶
Display current bsr, its uptime and last received bsm age.
- show ip pim bsrp-info¶
Display group-to-rp mappings received from E-BSR.
- show ip pim bsm-database¶
Display all fragments ofstored bootstrap message in user readable format.
- mtrace A.B.C.D [A.B.C.D]¶
Display multicast traceroute towards source, optionally for particular group.
- show ip multicast count [vrf NAME] [json]¶
Display multicast data packets count per interface for a vrf.
- show ip multicast count vrf all [json]¶
Display multicast data packets count per interface for all vrf.
PIM Debug Commands¶
The debugging subsystem for PIM behaves in accordance with how FRR handles debugging. You can specify debugging at the enable CLI mode as well as the configure CLI mode. If you specify debug commands in the configuration cli mode, the debug commands can be persistent across restarts of the FRR pimd if the config was written out.
- debug igmp¶
This turns on debugging for IGMP protocol activity.
- debug mtrace¶
This turns on debugging for mtrace protocol activity.
- debug mroute¶
This turns on debugging for PIM interaction with kernel MFC cache.
- debug pim events¶
This turns on debugging for PIM system events. Especially timers.
- debug pim nht¶
This turns on debugging for PIM nexthop tracking. It will display information about RPF lookups and information about when a nexthop changes.
- debug pim packet-dump¶
This turns on an extraordinary amount of data. Each pim packet sent and received is dumped for debugging purposes. This should be considered a developer only command.
- debug pim packets¶
This turns on information about packet generation for sending and about packet handling from a received packet.
- debug pim trace¶
This traces pim code and how it is running.
- debug pim bsm¶
This turns on debugging for BSR message processing.
- debug pim zebra¶
This gathers data about events from zebra that come up through the ZAPI.
PIM Clear Commands¶
Clear commands reset various variables.
- clear ip interfaces¶
- clear ip igmp interfaces¶
Reset IGMP interfaces.
- clear ip mroute¶
Reset multicast routes.
- clear ip mroute [vrf NAME] count¶
When this command is issued, reset the counts of data shown for packet count, byte count and wrong interface to 0 and start count up from this spot.
- clear ip pim interfaces¶
Reset PIM interfaces.
- clear ip pim oil¶
Rescan PIM OIL (output interface list).
- clear ip pim [vrf NAME] bsr-data¶
This command will clear the BSM scope data struct. This command also removes the next hop tracking for the bsr and resets the upstreams for the dynamically learnt RPs.
PIM EVPN configuration¶
To use PIM in the underlay for overlay BUM forwarding associate a multicast group with the L2 VNI. The actual configuration is based on your distribution. Here is an ifupdown2 example:
auto vx-10100 iface vx-10100 vxlan-id 10100 bridge-access 100 vxlan-local-tunnelip 18.104.22.168 vxlan-mcastgrp 22.214.171.124
PIM will see the
vxlan-mcastgrp configuration and auto configure state
to properly forward BUM traffic.
PIM also needs to be configured in the underlay to allow the BUM MDT to be setup. This is existing PIM configuration:
Enable pim on the underlay L3 interface via the “ip pim” command.
Configure RPs for the BUM multicast group range.
Ensure the PIM is enabled on the lo of the VTEPs and the RP.
debug igmp debug pim debug pim zebra ! You may want to enable ssmpingd for troubleshooting ! See http://www.venaas.no/multicast/ssmping/ ! ip ssmpingd 126.96.36.199 ip ssmpingd 188.8.131.52 ! HINTS: ! - Enable "ip pim ssm" on the interface directly attached to the ! multicast source host (if this is the first-hop router) ! - Enable "ip pim ssm" on pim-routers-facing interfaces ! - Enable "ip igmp" on IGMPv3-hosts-facing interfaces ! - In order to inject IGMPv3 local membership information in the ! PIM protocol state, enable both "ip pim ssm" and "ip igmp" on ! the same interface; otherwise PIM won't advertise ! IGMPv3-learned membership to other PIM routers interface eth0 ip pim ssm ip igmp