PCEP Module Internals

Introduction

The PCEP module for the pathd daemon implements the PCEP protocol described in RFC 5440 to update the policies and candidate paths.

The protocol encoding/decoding and the basic session management is handled by the pceplib external library 1.2.

Together with pceplib, this module supports at least partially:

  • RFC 5440

    Most of the protocol defined in the RFC is implemented. All the messages can be parsed, but this was only tested in the context of segment routing. Only a very small subset of metric types can be configured, and there is a known issue with some Cisco routers not following the IANA numbers for metrics.

  • RFC 8231

    Support delegation of candidate path after performing the initial computation request. If the PCE does not respond or cannot compute a path, an empty candidate path is delegated to the PCE. Only tested in the context of segment routing.

  • RFC 8408

    Only used to comunicate the support for segment routing to the PCE.

  • RFC 8664

    All the NAI types are implemented, but only the MPLS NAI are supported. If the PCE provide segments that are not MPLS labels, the PCC will return an error.

Note that pceplib supports more RFCs and drafts, see pceplib README for more details.

Architecture

Overview

The module is separated into multiple layers:

  • pathd interface
  • command-line console
  • controller
  • PCC
  • pceplib interface

The pathd interface handles all the interactions with the daemon API.

The command-line console handles all the VTYSH configuration commands.

The controller manages the multiple PCC connections and the interaction between them and the daemon interface.

The PCC handles a single connection to a PCE through a pceplib session.

The pceplib interface abstracts the API of the pceplib.

_images/pcep_module_threading_overview.svg

Threading Model

The module requires multiple threads to cooperate:

  • The main thread used by the pathd daemon.
  • The controller pthread used to isolate the PCC from the main thread.
  • The possible threads started in the pceplib library.

To ensure thread safety, all the controller and PCC state data structures can only be read and modified in the controller thread, and all the global data structures can only be read and modified in the main thread. Most of the interactions between these threads are done through FRR timers and events.

The controller is the bridge between the two threads, all the functions that MUST be called from the main thread start with the prefix pcep_ctrl_ and all the functions that MUST be called from the controller thread start with the prefix pcep_thread_. When an asynchronous action must be taken in a different thread, an FRR event is sent to the thread. If some synchronous operation is needed, the calling thread will block and run a callback in the other thread, there the result is COPIED and returned to the calling thread.

No function other than the controller functions defined for it should be called from the main thread. The only exception being some utility functions from path_pcep_lib.[hc].

All the calls to pathd API functions MUST be performed in the main thread, for that, the controller sends FRR events handled in function path_pcep.c:pcep_main_event_handler.

For the same reason, the console client only runs in the main thread. It can freely use the global variable, but MUST use controller’s pcep_ctrl_ functions to interact with the PCCs.

Source Code

Generic Data Structures

The data structures are defined in multiple places, and where they are defined dictates where they can be used.

The data structures defined in path_pcep.h can be used anywhere in the module.

Internally, throughout the module, the struct path data structure is used to describe PCEP messages. It is a simplified flattened structure that can represent multiple complex PCEP message types. The conversion from this structure to the PCEP data structures used by pceplib is done in the pceplib interface layer.

The data structures defined in path_pcep_controller.h should only be used in path_pcep_controller.c. Even if a structure pointer is passed as a parameter to functions defined in path_pcep_pcc.h, these should consider it as an opaque data structure only used to call back controller functions.

The same applies to the structures defined in path_pcep_pcc.h, even if the controller owns a reference to this data structure, it should never read or modify it directly, it should be considered an opaque structure.

The global data structure can be accessed from the pathd interface layer path_pcep.c and the command line client code path_pcep_cli.c.

Interface With Pathd

All the functions calling or called by the pathd daemon are implemented in path_pcep.c. These functions MUST run in the main FRR thread, and all the interactions with the controller and the PCCs MUST pass through the controller’s pcep_ctrl_ prefixed functions.

To handle asynchronous events from the PCCs, a callback is passed to pcep_ctrl_initialize that is called in the FRR main thread context.

Command Line Client

All the command line configuration commands (VTYSH) are implemented in path_pcep_cli.c. All the functions there run in the main FRR thread and can freely access the global variables. All the interaction with the controller’s and the PCCs MUST pass through the controller pcep_ctrl_ prefixed functions.

Debugging Helpers

All the functions formating data structures for debugging and logging purposes are implemented in path_pcep_debug.[hc].

Interface with pceplib

All the functions calling the pceplib external library are defined in path_pcep_lib.[hc]. Some functions are called from the main FRR thread, like pcep_lib_initialize, pcep_lib_finalize; some can be called from either thread, like pcep_lib_free_counters; some function must be called from the controller thread, like pcep_lib_connect. This will probably be formalized later on with function prefix like done in the controller.

Controller

The controller is defined and implemented in path_pcep_controller.[hc]. Part of the controller code runs in FRR main thread and part runs in its own FRR pthread started to isolate the main thread from the PCCs’ event loop. To communicate between the threads it uses FRR events, timers and thread_execute calls.

PCC

Each PCC instance owns its state and runs in the controller thread. They are defined and implemented in path_pcep_pcc.[hc]. All the interactions with the daemon must pass through some controller’s pcep_thread_ prefixed function.